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Art Lessons: Perspective: Two Point

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we're gonna be talking about perspective,
basic perspective.
These days when I draw perspective, I do
it a lot by sighting.
In other words I, you know, if I'm doing a
landscape, or I'm doing buildings, if I'm
doing it from life I usually like to
measure what direction's going, what way.
But, when I draw from my imagination, I
kind of just have done it so
much I do my crazy buildings in
I just know where my vanishing points are
and I, I, I'm able to get there, but
perspective is, is very, very powerful
tool to create the illusion of space.
And perspective was developed by an
Italian during the Renaissance.
I believe it was 1413, by an artist by the
name of Brunelleschi.
And he realized that when, that you could
really create.
He was an architect.
And you can really create the illusion of
space with what was called
linear perspective, which is where lines
go back to a common vanishing point.
Of course atmospheric perspective, which
has to do with
as colors recede to the background, they
lose intensity,
they lose saturation, and they become more
So they, they, they also lose darkness as
they go back.
So Leonardo DiCa, Leonardo DiCaprio
actually invented that.
No, Leonardo Da Vinci invented atmosphere
and actually Leonardo Da Vinci was also
said to
invented aerial perspective, which is
perspective from above.
Really interesting.
So, right now I'm going to just go over
some basic
principles of Brunelleschi's linear
So, I am working with a couple of tools,
I've just got my T-square here, everybody
needs to have this.
It's a really great device, if you're
drawing, to get, straights.
If you don't have a T-square, you gotta
get one.
And my trusty triangle.
Now as you can see, my triangle is full of
because, I paint a lot with it.
And over the years, I've just accumulated
a lot of paint.
Don't, if you,
if you do have a lot of paint on it make
sure it's not bumpy there.
Cuz as, if you do your lines you're just
going to not get straight lines
because the ridges aren't flat.
But, you probably won't be as insane as I
am and use it for painting things.
So, let's start with taking our T-square,
lining it up on the paper, okay?
So this will always give us a good line
like this.
Not enough amount of artists use their
vertical and
horizontal paper as not only a placement
for doing straights, but a measurement.
So we could always, if we don't have a
we could always use a straight or a
horizontal with the edge of our paper.
So here I'm just taking the T-square,
laying in my, what's called my eye level.
This is your eye level.
And I'm going to take two points.
One randomly here, one here.
The closer your van, the closer your
vanishing points are together,
the more distorted your objects are going
to be.
So I'm going to just take these, and this
is two point perspective.
So as you see, all lines are going to be
converging to these points.
Like that.
So, if you take it like that,
and by the way, if this is too clunky, too
big, that's okay.
Drop it, grab your triangle, and do that.
Now, as you can see, you can get all kinds
of different things going on.
Like that.
Like that.
And let's just do a quick,
just do a quick, building or something.
So, you have now two point perspective and
now you want to get you want to get maybe
a building here.
So you use your straight.
And you could do this, by the way, any way
you want.
You don't have to use, you can draw it
I like actually, I prefer to draw
So we're coming up from this point here.
This is our corner, this is our corner,
this is our corner, this is our corner.
And everything is vanishing to the
vanishing point.
So this is vanishing point one and
vanishing point two.
This is our eye level.
And this is above, this is also what's
called the horizon line.
Very important, horizon line.
And this, because it's above the horizon
You won't see the top plane.
You're gonna see just the side plane, like
Now here, you're gonna get
this side plane, like that.
You're getting this side of the building
Secondary vanishing point, you go to the
corner to that point,
and go back.
And make sure that this is parallel.
I'm just doing it by sight.
I could take it, if you had a smaller
T-square here,
you could take a T-square here, line it up
and do it that way, like that, see?
Which I can do, but I'm bending it.
And then you just don't have to deal with
free-handing it.
So, as you can see, this box here is, or
building, that's in the foreground here.
That's how you created that.
And if you want you can take, you can
you know, this and bring it up
just is you wanted to see what the back,
the back side of that building looks like.
You take this plane, bring it there like
And you take this plane
like that.
So if you wanted to know what the back of
that building was for
whatever reason you could just figure it
out like that.
Now, let's take a let's take another,
let's say we'll kind of well, I'm not
going to free hand it [LAUGH].
I'm very used to free handing things.
So let's take another building and let's
make it below the horizon line.
Just so you see what that's like.
So usually I just hold it here.
And I just swivel it like that, see that?
I'm swiveling it like this.
I had a very, very, extremely good
perspective teacher named Gary Meyer,
who did the Jaws poster, Chicago 13 album
cover, a million jobs.
Crazy perspective teacher, very good, I
learned so much from Gary Meyer,
if you don't know him research him, he was
my professor at the Art Center College of
Design in Pasadena, and he made
perspective really fun for me.
And, and Gary, it's funny, because he used
to do stuff like,
he would have these very sophisticated
buildings and three point perspective,
and just with like people and parking lots
and windows lit, and you know,
very complicated roof tops, and just stuff
that would just blow your mind.
And it was like, how did you do that?
Did you take photos?
Did you do this, that?
He says, well, no, I just lined up tissue
That's all he did, he's lining up tissue
So as you can see, a tissue box, or a box,
can be converted into a building.
I mean, it's really easy.
You don't really need much except a
three-dimensional object and
maybe how to light it.
Cuz then you could see if light hits this
plane, this plane's dark.
It casts a shadow this direction.
And that's really all he did.
He just took a couple of tissue boxes,
lined them up, lit it, and painted it, and
created an entire world out of his
So, food for thought.
so now I'm just gonna show you what it's
gonna be like below the horizon line.
Remember, make sure that these lines are
That's why this is see-through.
So you can see that line.
See how I'm seeing this line, through
Even though there's a lot of paint?
And I'm lining this up parallel, like
So that it's perspecting in a parallel
Same with this side.
In fact I could line it up with this
building because all
architectural lines should be parallel.
Lining it up like that.
Let's do the back line.
Line it up, line it up, like that.
Now, you can put those lines way up like
that just to see,
so you could make your building this tall
or you can make this tall.
You could play with whatever you want.
Perspective's fun because it just allows
you to play.
So here.
Go back like that and
while I'm here I'm gonna do that other
plane there, like that.
Then I'm gonna do this one right here and
actually it's lower, so it's really here,
That's where it is.
And I'm gonna draw it back but this is
too, it's too short.
It won't reach, right?
So I take my t-square and am I gonna do
No, because I can't make it flat.
I need to make this flat.
So I take it, I turn it around, put it up
against here.
That is the key to make it flat so you can
get it right.
Drawing is hard enough I tell all my
students this, it's hard enough.
There's no reason to make it harder.
There's no reason to just do this and
[SOUND] Where is that again,
that [SOUND]
Make it easy for yourself.
So have the right tools, so that you don't
have to worry.
It's easy.
Take it, line it up, bam.
So as you could see here, in this
perspective with this box, you have.
You have the box below the horizon line
you have this one above the horizon line.
Now let's take it to where it's way above
the horizon line.
So let's say there's another thin building
right here.
And it goes way, way, way, way, way up.
And we won't get the back plane of this.
We'll just do the front plane.
And maybe right, it'll be like this.
See that building is really weird and it's
really maybe even.
Only this big right there, see?
So here's the front point of the bottom of
the building.
Here's the back point, here's the side.
Now to get the other one, we take that
line and we run it to the vanishing point.
Like that.
You take the back line and we run it like
And obviously this became a lot taller.
Like that.
So now we just have to make a decision of
how tall we want it.
And we could just make it that tall.
And then this side will come down like
So this is a little bit more sky scrapery
as you can see.
So this building here which sits behind
is like that and like that.
And of course front plane is here.
You could see pretty soon we could start
really developing a city.
I mean you could start saying well you
Here's the, here's the sidewalk over here.
Like that.
You know, here's the curve and the court,
the curve obviously would be a very thin
line going back in perspective like that.
And here's the other sidewalk here, so you
can start having fun and
just little going with little bit more
And you could build cars you could have,
you could have stoplights and
intersections and all kinds of crazy
thing, you could put people and
you can get windows.
You know, it's really fast, like to block
in your windows like,
and you wanna make it kinda equidistant
because architecture is.
There's a formula to it.
As you could see.
Though what I like to do.
With respect to, to measuring like that
I'll show you a little secret and trick
that I use.
And it's really, really simple is I like
to [NOISE] take a piece of paper and
let's say I was doing equidistant windows.
I, I take one measurement here like that.
And if I like that measurement I bring it
down to here.
And I say, that's the next one.
That's the next one.
That's the next one.
Making sure they're always equidistant.
Making sure.
Making sure and then.
I take that measurement.
And that's very simple right?
I mean really?
Two dots.
I thought of that, not Leonardo.
[LAUGH] Not Brunelleschi.
Linear perspective, pretty good.
Leonardo atmospheric error perspective,
pretty good.
Two dots, Bua.
That's right.
That's what I created it.
But sometimes those simple systems really
I mean I'm telling you, it really helps.
People really freak out about the math of
perspective sometimes.
How do you figure it out?
How do you figure that?
How do you figure that out.
And sometimes it's just that easy.
So another thing I wanna talk about is how
do you get
things perspecting back in space.
At an even ratio.
And I wanna go into that just a little
So let's say that we have.
I'm gonna make it very dark.
[NOISE] Another shape, building we wanna
[NOISE] And I gotta go to my bigger ruler
So I create and we have to take a, a
random measurement.
Like that.
Now I take that.
I take that square that's going back in
perspective and
I draw from one corner to the other corner
like that.
Then I take the other side and I do the
same thing.
I take one corner to the other corner like
So I find that middle point right here,
and I draw it back to the vanishing point.
I line them up and I draw it back like
Now from this point here, right here,
let's say this was.
Not just a square on the ground, but it
was a cement, like a cement block.
And it was, this size, is supposed to be
this size all the way back.
So whatever it was, a cement block, or
anything at all.
You wanna take that exact thing and find
the exact measurement and
how to keep that exact measurement.
Perspecting, but make it the same, same
object perspecting in space.
You take that midpoint from here to the
corner and you draw a line to right there.
See right here.
And then you draw it back.
To this vanishing point.
There's a science here.
That is the exact same object prospecting
back into space.
That's how much smaller it gets as it
prospects back.
And you can continue to do that.
You have to dissect it.
Oops, bam.
That's your midpoint right here and
that would be that same object
Really be careful about lining these up.
You wanna get it right.
Like that.
So you see that, you could continually do
that with shapes.
And it's really good also
when you start to figure out ellipses as
they're moving back into space.
So for me.
I do most of this free-hand.
Perspective is one of those things and De
Laquois said this,
De Laquois said perspective is one of
those things
that you wanna really learn and then
forget it.
But not totally forget it.
In other words you wanna learn it so it
becomes intuitive so you don't so
you're not always drawing with rulers and
being stiff about it.
You wanna learn it really well, process it
and make it become intuitive and natural.
Then you just include it while you're
So you're drawing in perspective.
A lot of people don't draw in perspective
and they really need to think about that.
Even with the figure.
When you look at a figure, are you looking
up at the figure?
Are you looking down at the figure?
Sometimes it's just the sa, people draw
whether they're looking up or
down the same eye level.
At least start thinking about where is my
eye level.
And my at the figure's waist and my above
the cityscape and my below a cityscape.
Where is my eye level?
So this is two point perspective and this
will set you on the right path to learning
perspective because really it's really fun
and anybody could do this.