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Jazz & More Guitar Lessons: Analyzing Tunes

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Jazz Advanced, Analyzing Tunes, Part 1.
On the site in the forums,
there has been a lot of
questions about analyzing tunes.
And I'm gonna provide you,
I tried to provide you with all
the possible information in writing,
but I thought it was also like,
a good idea to do a lesson on this and
try to explain it for those of you who
maybe didn't grasp the whole thing or,
or have some additional questions,
and you, so
I might be able to explain it a little bit
better now when, when I'm live on camera.
It's a concept, you know, I teach
both ear training and also a theory.
And, theory is good especially when
you wanna analyze something, or
if you wanna communicate
without the musicians.
It's a good tool to know.
You should definitely not
get stuck with theory.
You should, like the main thing is
to play music and use your ears, but
it doesn't hurt to know, and
if you have time to learn this, and
if you're interested in analyzing
songs finding chord functions and
see the big picture,
this will be a good tool for you.
At least to, to know and be aware of.
So, I started back in Sweden
at the Royal conservator,
conservatorial music and then we had
a class called like analyzing tunes,
you know and
they provided me with these tools.
You can call it step theory.
It's something they originally, I don't
know if they originally came up with it,
but they're teaching it at least at
Berkley College of Music in Boston and
a lot of musicians all over the world
they know the theory, and
they can analyze songs this way.
It's like a language, and
you might be able to like, analyze songs,
you know, anywhere in the world, and, and
meet people from all over the planet.
They might be able to speak the same
language this step theory thing.
So for instance, let's start in the key,
I will explain it, in the key of C.
We have these functions.
One, this is like the first
step of the E on your scale.
The root, the key we're playing in.
So this is one.
One major 7, for instance.
And, and if we change key,
if we play an F, this will be one major 7.
And if we play in E flat,
this is one major 7.
So doesn't matter what key you're at, you
can still analyze it with, with the steps.
So for instance, if I say, first we
have a one major 7 then a 3 minor 7.
Then if I play it in C, I play it C and
then E minor, is that, the 3 minor.
We will get to that.
Or if I change key to F sharp.
This will be like, one major 7 and
then this will be the 3.
B flat will be a 3 minor 7.
So it's really easy to transpose
a song once you know the functions,
then you can just think,
one, three, four, and so on.
So that's,
that's a good thing about it as well.
So one, you even see,
1 major 7, 2 minor 7, E.
3 minor 7 E.
[SOUND] Four major 7, F.
5 7, G.
6 minor 7, A minor 7, and 7,
minor 7 flat 5, B minor 7 flat 5.
So for instance, and then we have the,
like the, the dominants.
We have G, G7.
It's 5 7, 2, 1,
'cause it's like, this root,
the root is resolving up a 4th or
down a 5th.
Okay, and the second chord.
We have 2 minor 7 here.
D minor.
This is dominant.
If we see an A7 within the song,
if we have for instance.
A7, D minor, C major, A7, D minor, G7.
This dominant will,
will be called 5 7 to 2.
'Cause it's not within the key.
You know, you have an A chord within the C
major scale, and that's the A minor, but
now we talking A7.
So, if we have this chord going to, to,
D minor you know, A7 to D minor,
we call it 5, 7 to 2.
5, 7 to 2.
And if we have a, a B7 going to E minor,
we call it 5, 7 to 3.
And so on.
If we have a C major first and
then C7 to F, we call it 5, 7 to 4.
And if we have a D7 going to G7.
We call it 5,
7 to 5.
And if we have an E7 going to A minor,
we call it 5, 7 to 6.
And so on.
And that's 5, 7, and, and then we
have of course the B minor 7 flat 5,
but that's not a chord, and
no dominant can resolve into that chord,
because it doesn't have a,
like a natural 5th.
It has a, a flat 5, so
you can't like you can't approach it with,
with a dominant, 'cause it doesn't
sound like a target chord.
For instance,
if you would play like an F sharp 7.
You hear this, this sound,
doesn't sound like
A chord that could be approached by,
by dominant, it doesn't lead
that well as you hear here.
So after 5,
7 to 6 there are no more
what we call secondary dominants,
is what you call, or bi dominants,
and the scale choices.
Of course, for dominants,
there are many scale choices.
You can choose to play all
through Superlocrian or
half whole diminished or Lydian flat 7.
There are many choices, but I will show
you the most inside choices to start with,
'cause if you in a key of C.
And we have a, a 5, 7 to 2.
A7 to D minor.
Let's take the chord tones out of A7.
B add it in C sharp.
E and G.
then fill out the remaining notes
the surrounding notes from the key.
And now we're wi, within C, C major.
[SOUND] It, it will be like this.
'Cause I'm using.
[SOUND] This,
this one from the A7 arpeggio.
[SOUND] The B from the scale.
C sharp from the arpeggio.
D from the scale.
[SOUND] E from the ar, arpeggio.
[SOUND] F from the scale.
G from arpeggio and A, right back to A, so
that, that scale is
called Mixolydian flat 6.
So you can use it, it sounds very much
within the key of C you have the A7 chord.
This is a scale over A7 that has
the most notes in common with C major,
with the surrounding key.
Then of course,
if you don't like that sound and
if you think it feels a bit like
not that interesting, you can,
you can always do like,
the altered scale, or do other choices.
And I'm, I'm doing that as well, but it's
good to know these basic ones as well.
To, to, like get started and, and
get the feeling of, of, of the key.
And the whole point with this step
with you is to as much as possible,
trying to analyze the song within one key.
Even though you're not just
looking at each chord,
on each chord at some,
as something spec, separate.
Instead trying to see the big picture and
try to relate it somehow to
the surrounded key if, if possible.
So the next chord, I'm doing the same.
I'm taking the chord tones for, for B7,
and then filling out with, with,
the surrounding scale tones from C major.
And then you get this scale.
B mixo flat 2 flat 6.
for the next the next bi dominant,
doing the same thing.
The chord tone from C7,
filling out with the scale
tones from C major in between.
And I will get this result.
Mixolydian scale.
Of C.
Same thing on D.
D7 the chord tones fill, filling out with.
Surrounding notes from C major.
And the scale will be.
For, for, 5, 7 to 5,
will also be Mixolydian.
And for 5, 7 to 6.
Do the same thing again.
Filling out with with the,
the surrounding notes from C major.
You will get this scale.
Mixolydian flat 2, flat 6 once again.
So 5,
7 to 2 mixo flat 6.
5, 7 to 3, mixo flat 2, flat 6.
5, 7 to 4, makes so 5, 7 to 5, makes so
5, 7 to 6, mixo flat 2, flat 6,
and of course 5, 7 to 1.
It'll be pure Mixolydian.
So remember you have these choices and
you also have other choices
that are more outside and
more hip that you might like better.
Also the basic scales as you know for,
for this first chord is Ionian C major,
D Dorian, E Phrygian, F Lydian,
G Mixolydian A Aeolian, and B Locrian.
And if you wanna learn more
about the modes, go and, and,
and check out my introduction to
the modes within the jazz basic block.
Jazz Advanced, Analyzing Tunes Part 2.
So, in the next step here, we,
we might have a related dominant for,
a, a related minor chord for
each of these dominants.
For instance, for the G7 to C,
we have D minor.
For this one, we might have for,
for A7 to D minor.
We might have and E minor,
A7 to E minor, or an E minor 7 flat 5
'cause it's leading to a minor chord.
And, for these chords, you can just
put them in when you're analyzing it.
You don't have to give them an,
an, their own name.
You just write like the 5 7 to 5,
to 2, and before that,
you just put a bracket like,
from the, from the the,
the, minor chord before,
the related minor chord.
So, if you had E minor.
Or, or E minor 7 flat 5.
If we have E minor,
we could easily analyze it as a 3 minor 7,
of course, but if we have a E minor 7 flat
5, we could just we do not to analyze it.
We could just put it in a bracket
showing it's related to the dominant,
and then analyzing the,
the dominant as a 5 7 to 2.
And, the same goes, the same idea goes for
all of these dominants.
If they have a related 2 minor or
minor 7 chord before them,
you can just put in the bracket if you, if
you can find a separate function for them.
And then,
what you usually do in writing if,
if it's, if these dominants are kind of.
Leading or resolving into the chord
where they're supposed to go.
Like, A7 to D minor 7, you just write
an arrow like, this from that chord to
the other showing that it's resolving up
a 4th or down a 5th like in the bass note.
Then, you can also have.
So, from a chromatic like substitutions,
each of these bi-dominants,
you can take the tritone.
So instead of G7.
there's augmented 4th or flat 5 interval.
You can use the dominant here.
D flat 7 instead of G.
Instead of A, E flat 7.
Instead of B, F7.
Instead of C, G flat 7.
Instead of D, A flat 7.
Instead of E, B-flat seven.
So, you can have a progression like this.
Once again, then it's
a sub 5 of 2, a sub of,
of 5 7 dominant.
So, you're substituting this for this.
And, that's called a tritone substitution.
And, you can do the same
with all these bi-dominants.
And then, while they're resolving.
If they're resolving then,
like half a step down to.
E flat 7, like resolving it to D minor.
You, you can do an,
an another kind of arrow.
Not a full arrow, but you can like,
do an an arrow with like, dots.
Showing, it's the dotted arrow showing
that it's resolving half a step down,
you know, instead of up a 4th or,
or down a 5th.
And then, and then you can also have
like a related minor chord to D as well.
Like, instead of C.
B flat minor, E flat 7.
And then, if you can't find
the function then for the B flat minor,
you can just once again put it in
a bracket showing that it's related
to that sub sub 5 7 to 2 dominant.
So, that's good to know.
Also, you might encounter other
functions that's like, for instance,
if, if we're here, C major.
And then, then,
we have a D flat major 7, or D flat.
Then we say what's happening here?
There's no D flat within
the C major scale.
So, are we changing keys now?
Well, then you can try to find,
is there another C mode,
another C tonality that
has D flat in it and
has the E,
D flat major as the second step.
So, for instance,
if we're looking here at.
The Phrygian scale.
Because if we have C major,
it's not in there.
If we have the Dorian, it's not in there,
but Phrygian, it has a flat, flat 9.
We're considering this chord as borrowed.
From C Phrygian, so
we call it flat 2 major 7.
And, what scale to play here?
Of course, C Phrygian,
because it is borrowed from C Phrygian.
But C is not the root.
D Flat is the root.
So, the next step after
Phrygian is Lydian.
So, D Flat Lydian.
as you may notice, this G note,
that is the, the Lydian note.
That's part of a G Maj,
a C Major scale, as well.
So, that note,
compared to playing [INAUDIBLE].
That re, regular like fourth.
This will be more inside within the key.
So, here.
So, that's a common
function, flat
2 major 7.
And then, you will start to
encounter all of these functions.
Like, for instance.
Flat 3.
That's another possibility,
flat 3 major 7 E flat major 7.
Or maybe flat 6 major 7, A flat.
And then, you work it out the same way,
trying to find another C mode.
Where, where you can find this function.
And the next step, if you can't
find it within a regular scale.
If you wanna avoid transposing to another
key, you can actually search within
the other modes, the melodic minor
modes in the harmonic minor mode.
But, that's a more advanced thing, you
can wait a little bit with that un, un,
until you get this right.
And, let me show you a couple of
like, more functions.
For instance, if we have a dominant
chord coming like C, F F7.
Back to C.
We'll call this, for instance, 4 7.
And then, we have to check once again,
'cause the 4th step of C is F major,
not F7.
So, we have to find another C mode where.
Where F7 is the 4th step.
So, let's go back then.
For instance [SOUND] F is mixo,
supposed to mixo.
Then the next one,
well it would be Aeolian.
It's usually like a whole step up.
And then, half a step up will have Ionian.
And then,
another whole step would be Dorian.
And then, we're up at C.
So, C Dorian.
If you start that C Dorian scale from F,
you will get F mixo.
So, then, we can say that this
chord is borrowed from C Dorian.
Sounds good.
We can also,
if we wanna look further out, and, and
find a scale that has even more
notes in common with, with C major,
we can try out the, playing the Lydian
flat 7 over, over this chord.
'Cause that has that
that B.
B is a, a common note with C major.
So, if we start that scale from C,
it's a C melodic minor scale.
If we start it from F,
it's F Lydian flat 7.
So, if we wanna make it
a little bit more advanced,
we can say that this chord is
borrowed from C melodic minor.
And then, you can also choose to play
this Lydian Flat 7 favor, flavor to it.
But, mixolydian works fine as well.
I forgot to mention, that when you
improvising or finding scales for
these sub, sub 5 7 to 1.
1 to 2, to 3, to 4, to 5, to 6, etc.
Like, D flat 7 instead of G7.
This, the proper scale choice for
all these sub-5s would be Lydian flat 7.
D flat, root, 9, 3rd, sharp 11.
5th 6th, dominant 7, and root.
And, some of you might
notice that D flat 7,
Lydian flat 7 share
the same note with like, G.
So, G simple Locrian.
So, that, that's really good to know.
And, there are so
many functions you will encounter.
I've written a lot about this on the
forum, so you should go to the forums and,
and find the list that I've done of all,
all the possible.
Chord functions, like, within the key.
The chords that, that I consider,
or that this theory considers being,
belonging to, to a key.
So, for instance, I will just show you
where you could actually consider it,
a, a key change since they're,
'cause, if we have C
going to A Flat mi, major.
Major, like this.
That would be the flat 6 major 7.
this chord could be borrowed like,
once again from.
We could, we could have it borrowed from,
for instance, C Phrygian.
we could have it borrowed, if we wanna
have that D note, the sharp 11 instead.
Could borrow it from C Aeolian.
That's more within the key.
So, you can play.
Still within,
within the same key.
But, if that chord would be
preceded by a 2 5 1, like a 2 5 and
then 1, then it sounds more like a.
Key, temporary like, key change.
[MUSIC] For instance,.
It sounds like a new tonic chord 'cause
it's preceded by a dominant and
a related minor.
Minor 7th chord.
So then, you can consider it as
a key change 'cause it sounds,
then it sounds better to play
from the Ionian over that new like, tonic.
But, if you go straight from C to A flat
major without preceding with that
dominant and that related minor chord.
It sounds better to use the Lydian.
But, if I have this,
then you can consider
it as a, a new tonic.
And, there's not an absolute
truth when analyzing.
You can actually analyze
in many different ways.
I'm just trying to show you these
basic tools that you can use.
So, go to the forums,
ask questions if you have any or
ask questions below this lesson and
you can post in a thread.
And, go back to my forum post.
I've done a few different ones, but
especially one where I've written
down all the possible like,
chord functions within the key, or
at least the ones that I know about.
And, that will be a good
source of information for
you if you're interested in learning.
This way of analyzing.
Thank you.