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Jazz Guitar Lessons: Intro to Chords

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Introduction to Chords.
So, as we discussed scales and
the positions of scales, so,
that we can apply some of
those scales to improvising.
I wanna go over some basic chord theory.
So that we can provide the information
we need for a progression to play.
Improvise over.
All of you probably know
the basic guitar chords.
You know the
[MUSIC].
You know and the structure of major chord
[MUSIC],
a minor chord.
Most of those chords, theoretically
are made of only three notes, the 1st,
the 3rd and the, 5th so like in A,
[MUSIC]
A, C sharp, E, is, a, an A triad.
Right?
A major and
you play it on guitar
[MUSIC].
Most people play it like that or
barre chords.
Well, the difference between pop music or
folk music or, or basic rock,
is that,
rather than just using triads, jazz
uses more complicated chords, basically
starting with, the four note chord.
Where we add the 7th.
So, let's try to imagine in our minds, and
you could actually, maybe find a keyboard.
Let's imagine the, the piano keyboard.
When we do this.
If the C major scale,
[MUSIC]
is all white keys, if you skip every other
note, you end up with a chord,
or an arpeggio.
[MUSIC]
So, I skipped the, the second one and
I go to the third.
[MUSIC]
Skip, the fourth one, and
go to the fifth, I get the triad.
[MUSIC]
If I go one step further and
skip the sixth and go to the seventh,
I get the 7th chord.
[MUSIC]
You can do it on the guitar like that, and
you can actually play it right here
[MUSIC].
If you take a C
[MUSIC],
a regular C chord like the old folk chord,
lift up your first finger so
the B string is open
[MUSIC],
you get a root position 7th chord.
Now, those kind of chords,
like you have a minor triad,
like, A major, A minor.
To make them 7th chord
you'd just add the seven.
Now, in the case of jazz positions for me
on the guitar, I use two basic positions.
And, you'll have a diagram for
these so check them out.
I'm going to play them now for you.
One is where it root and
then the 7th, skipping a string,
going all the way up to the 7th,
the 3rd, and then the fifth degree.
So, it's not right in a row
like we said on the piano.
So, here you're gonna get
[MUSIC]
in A, I'm gonna do
it
[MUSIC]
A and then all the way up to the 7th.
[MUSIC]
To the 7th degree
[MUSIC],
and then up to the third above the octave.
[MUSIC]
1-7-3.
[MUSIC]
And then up to the fifth on top.
[MUSIC]
It's a pretty sounding chord.
Okay, and then,
as we know from when we were looking at,
you know, taking the, the numbers,
the number system before and
altering at a, a, a note before we took
[MUSIC]
one, two, three and
then we altered flatted the third
[MUSIC]
right?
Well, when you do that in the,
in the chords,
it changes the character of the chord.
So, for example
[MUSIC]
to take it a major 7th chord,
[MUSIC]
and make it a dominant 7th chord, you find
the seventh and lower it a half step
[MUSIC].
So, you see that?
[MUSIC]
Now, let's take that and
make it a minor 7th.
The thing that determines whether a chord
is major or minor is the third, right?
This one.
[MUSIC]
Right?
So in this case, we're gonna take the
[MUSIC]
we already lowered the 7th.
Now, minor 7th, we would take the third
[MUSIC],
and lower that.
[MUSIC].
You can do it that way or
you can do it this way
[MUSIC].
So, let's see all three
[MUSIC],
major 7th, dominant 7th
[MUSIC],
minor 7th
[MUSIC],
I bar my fingers there but
you can do it like this
[MUSIC].
Back to dominant
[MUSIC],
back to major
[MUSIC].
I'm gonna take a break here, and
talk about the number system, again.
Just like the major scale
had numbers going up.
[MUSIC]
One, two, three, four, five, six, seven.
And just like the arpeggio that I built on
the, the, the main chord of the key, the,
the root chord of the key, in this case A
[MUSIC].
By skipping a step each time,
I could create an arpeggio or
a chord
[MUSIC]
right?
You can do that on every
note of the major scale.
What do I mean by that?
So, if I skip every note starting
from the second degree of the scale
[MUSIC].
The second degree is B
[MUSIC].
So, I'm skipping the third and going right
to the fourth, skipping the fifth and
going right to the sixth.
[MUSIC]
Skipping the seventh going to the,
to the root an octave higher
[MUSIC],
I get a minor chord,
[MUSIC].
If I do the same thing from the third
[MUSIC],
I get a minor 7th chord again
[MUSIC].
Well if I go to the 4th degree, I get
the same thing, a major, a major chord.
[MUSIC]
Now, we're gonna come back to this in more
detail later, but for now,
what I want you to be aware
of is that each chord in the sequence has,
a, a,
a certain kind of tone,
a certain kind of character.
The 5th position,
I just went to the 4th position, so,
the 5th position is,
[MUSIC].
The 5th chord,
5 chord ends up being a dominant 7th chord
[MUSIC].
The 6th chord ends up
being a minor 7th again,
just like the 2nd and 3rd
[MUSIC].
And the last one, and
that's why I interrupted myself before,
is a weird chord.
It's a minor 7th with a flatted 5th
[MUSIC],
it's a different sound
[MUSIC].
So, now,
let me go back to the chords I was doing
[MUSIC].
Major 7th,
[MUSIC]
dominant 7th, minor 7th
[MUSIC].
And now, I'm gonna add that last
one that I got to, the7th one,
which is a minor 7th with a flat 5th
[MUSIC].
Now, this probably sounds like a,
a complicated concept right now.
But the main reason that I want to
point it out to you now is that,
knowing all of these cords,
you can create a scale in chords.
Now, what do I mean by that?
I'm going to go up the scale
[MUSIC],
now, I'm going to go to the,
that's the root or the one,
I'm going to go up to second note.
Two,
[MUSIC]
and as I pointed out,
that's a minor chord.
Three was also a minor chord.
[MUSIC]
Four is a major 7th.
[MUSIC]
You see I'm using that same position of
four note chord in each case.
5 is a dominant 7th.
[MUSIC]
Now, so, I don't have to play too high in
the neck, I'm gonna go down to
[MUSIC]
the, the six degree,
I'm gonna go down here
[MUSIC].
And that weird chord,
the minor 7 flat 5 is the next one
[MUSIC].
You see
[MUSIC],
the structure of that one,
and then back to the root
[MUSIC].
You notice that I had to
jump around to do that
[MUSIC].
There's a way that you can do something so
you don't have to jump around.
And that would be, play the same voicing,
just like in the scales,
the scales had some that started on the
6th string, and some on the 5th string.
I'm gonna play the same voicing, but
with the notes starting on the 5th string.
The root being on the 5th string.
So, an A
[MUSIC]
would be here.
So, it would be
[MUSIC]
dominant 7th
[MUSIC],
minor 7th
[MUSIC],
minor 7th flat 5.
So, that gives me the possibility of
not having to go up the neck this way.
I can go across the neck this way.
What do I mean?
[MUSIC]
Now, instead of squeezing up here and
going to the twelfth fret,
[MUSIC]
I can play it on the 5th string
[MUSIC].
Hence, going all the way up instead
of having to jump back down
[MUSIC].
There's many different
configurations you can do like this.
[MUSIC]