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Cello Lessons: Running Chord Scales

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[MUSIC]
In addition to running the arpeggios on
these chords,
a really important way to develop
as an improviser is to
run scales on the chords.
So this is gonna take advantage
of all of the modal chord
scale practice we did in
the chord scale series of lessons.
And I'm gonna talk you through each mode
that is associated with the chords in
this song.
And I'll also have a chart written
out that has this info written so
you can use that as well.
The first chord,
A minor 7 is gonna use an A Dorian scale.
[MUSIC]
The D7 uses
a D Mixolydian scale.
[MUSIC]
G major 7
uses a G major, or
Ionian scale.
[MUSIC]
The next chord, C major 7,
is actually expressed with a sharp 11.
And remember, if we're seeing a chord
extension, you can figure out the scale
degree that's being altered by subtracting
seven from the extension number.
So when we have a sharp eleven, that's
referring to the fourth scale degree.
So a major scale with
a sharp four is Lydian.
So we're gonna play the C lydian
scale on this fourth chord.
[MUSIC]
Followed by F sharp,
Locrian, for the half
diminished seven chord.
[MUSIC]
And now,
we've got a five seven
chord in a minor key.
So we're gonna use our fifth mode
of the harmonic minor scale,
which is gonna be E harmonic minor,
but we're gonna start it from B.
So that's gonna sound like this.
[MUSIC]
Now we're gonna cadence in E minor,
and this is the root chord,
the one chord in this song, and
it's E Aeolian, or a natural minor.
[MUSIC]
Okay, we've gotten through seven
different chords and it's a lot of
different modes to keep track of.
But I want to make your life
as easy as possible and
let you know that all of these
chords are diatonic to E minor.
That means they all use the same
collection of pitches other than the D
sharp, which is the major
third in the B7 chord.
Other than that one note, every note is
gonna be from E natural minor, E AeoIian.
Which coincidentally has the same
pitches as G major, okay?
So instead of thinking of all
of these separate modes and
changing a mode every four beats,
you could think of all of
this happening in G major.
And we're just starting
the scale from different notes.
For the first chord, for the A minor 7,
we'll simply start it from A.
And then the next bar, we'll start
the G major scale from D and so on.
When you have diatonic
harmonies like this,
it's really helpful to understand the
general key scale that we're working with.
But we still wanna practice
them as chord scales,
starting from the root of each chord.
The B section of Autumn Leaves
reverses the two phrases of chords in
the A section.
So, we're gonna start with the two,
five, one in E minor.
F sharp half diminished
7 to B7 to E minor.
And then we'll do four phrases,
four bars around the circle of fifths,
A minor 7 to D7, G major 7,
to C major 7 sharp 11.
And then, in the final section,
we've got another two, five, one in E.
These are all chords that we just did.
Then we have a couple of new chords, okay?
These fast moving chords,
the E minor 7, to E flat dominant 7.
And then the D minor 7
to D flat dominant 7.
This is the hardest part and so
I want to go through the chord scales for
these two measures as well.
So, we start with E natural minor,
E Aeolian 7.
[MUSIC]
Which is immediately
followed by E flat Mixolydian.
The Mixolydian mode is associated
with the dominant 7 chord.
So that starts on E flat.
[MUSIC]
Then we have D Dorian,
and we end with D flat Mixolydian.
[MUSIC]
This is the hardest part of the piece.
If you're having trouble with
any of these chord scales,
go back to our chord scale exercises and
you can focus on each one individually.
I would recommend focusing on these
quick moving ones a bunch of extra times
just to make sure that you feel
comfortable with these quick changes.
[MUSIC]
[MUSIC]
The tune ends with
a two-five-one in E minor.
And you've already done that.
So after you take the time to
simply identify the notes and
all of these chord scales which
I've just demonstrated for you.
I want you to play it along with the
metronome like we did with the arpeggios
so that we can practice transitioning
between scales without stopping.
I'm gonna put the metronome at 50 and
I'm gonna go once through
the tune playing and
running these chord
scales up from the roots.
One, two, three, four.
[MUSIC]
B
Section.
[MUSIC]
We
made
it
through
all
of
Autumn
leaves
really
slowly.
Once you identify these scales, see if
you can play it with me at that speed.
Looking at the chord chart,
so you can keep your place.
[MUSIC]
[MUSIC]
If you can do it at that tempo,
then you wanna work it
up with the metronome.
The faster you go, it's actually gonna
be easier to hear these harmonies and
to hear these chord scales
when they're closer together,
you hear the full effect of the harmony.
After many, many moons of practicing,
eventually you can work up the metronome
notch by notch and you can play
this chord scale exercise along with
the backing track of the guitar.
Let me show how it would
sound at that tempo.
[SOUND] One, two, ready and.
[MUSIC]
Good.
You'll notice that at performance tempo,
we don't have time to go all
the way up and down each scale.
Well, for most of these one bar chords,
we can only go up.
And we can only come back
down on the two bar chords,
like E minor at the end of the sections.
And then for those two B chords,
that walkdown,
in chromatic walkdown,
you just fit in as many notes as you can.
[MUSIC]
If you try it at slower tempos you can
try and double the speed of your scales.
But try this way first.
After you get pretty comfortable with
these chord scales up from the root,
we wanna do all of the permutations
of the chord scales and
I bet you can guess what those
might be by this points.
If you guess well, if we're going up from
the root we probably gotta go down
from the root, that is correct.
We're definitely gonna do that.
Let me just play the first four bars
to show you how that might sound.
[MUSIC]
I'm gonna show you the first four bars and
the other permutations too,
but your job is to figure out these
inversions for the rest of the song.
So going up from the third,
it's gonna sound like this.
[MUSIC]
Going down from
the third sounds like this.
[MUSIC]
Now,
from the fifth going
up sounds like this.
[MUSIC]
And
going down.
[MUSIC]
And going up and
down from the seventh.
[MUSIC]
Here's
down.
[MUSIC]
You can hear that all these inversions
are gonna have a different
feel to them even
though it's the same
collection of pitches.
That's the sound
sensitivity we wanna have.
We wanna build our appreciation of all
the inversions of these harmonies.
It can take a long time to become
comfortable with running scales like this.
This is a fundamental principle in jazz.
Start with just the roots going up
from the roots for many, many moons.
A few months maybe and then when
you're ready go down from the root.
After another couple months, if and
only if you feel that you're ready,
try exploring these inversions.
We're gonna be applying these chord scales
to all the tunes that we're learning in
the jazz curriculum.
This is a fundamental way to
learn the harmony of any song.
[MUSIC]