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Cello Lessons: Finding Chords: 7th Chord Arpeggios

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[MUSIC]
A seventh chord is what we
call the four notes that indicate
the harmony the most effectively.
So if you have a C major scale,
the seventh chord is gonna be the root,
the third, the fifth, and the seventh.
You just skip these notes and
that's how you build a chord.
You're gonna skip the second scale of
the reading you're gonna root to third,
skip four, and go to fifth, and so on.
So arpeggios are built on skipping
every other note in a scale.
There are five main types of seventh chord
arpeggios that we're gonna have to learn,
memorize, and internalize in order
to play jazz in particular, but
it's also gonna come in very
handy if you're ever trying to
like strum chords when
you're learning a song.
Or even in Bluegrass,
there's gonna be a handful of different
chord shapes that we'll use in that style.
So let me just tell you
what these five shapes are,
and then we'll figure out
what to do with them.
So let's go to the key of D.
That way we can use our open D and open A.
A D major seventh arpeggio associated
with the D major scale has these notes.
[MUSIC]
It's got a sharp
third to make it major,
and a sharp seventh for
a major seventh
[MUSIC].
The next cord we're gonna learn in
the dominant seventh arpeggio associated
with the mixolydian scale.
This keeps the major third, but
the seventh is gonna be flatted, so
we're gonna play a C natural [SOUND] and
it sounds like this.
[MUSIC]
The next chord is the minor
seventh arpeggio, and
this also has a flat seven.
And we're gonna add the flat third
now to make it a minor chord
that sounds like this.
[MUSIC]
There's one more
commonly used chord we can use and
this arpeggio is the minor
seven flat five.
so we're gonna keep the flat seven,
we're gonna keep the flat three, and
we're gonna take the A down to
an A-flat [SOUND] for a flat five.
Sounds like this.
[MUSIC]
The fifth arpeggio we're
gonna learn is the fully
diminished arpeggio.
The minor seven flat five that
we just learned is often called
the half-diminished arpeggio.
To make it fully diminished,
we're gonna take the flat seven,
[SOUND] and actually flat it again.
[SOUND] C-flat.
It actually sounds like the note B.
The whole arpeggio sounds like this.
[MUSIC]
Those five arpeggios
are the commonly used
seventh chord arpeggios.
There is one more
permutation we could learn.
It's called the augmented arpeggio, and
this has all major thirds as intervals.
So we have [SOUND] D to F-sharp [SOUND].
That's major assured.
And we're gonna have a sharp five.
[SOUND] An A-sharp there, and
then [SOUND] we're back to the roots.
We can add a flat seven to that, [SOUND]
to make it a seventh chord arpeggio.
The augmented seventh
chord sounds like this.
[MUSIC]
So we've got five arpeggios
in common use as well as this
sixth augmented arpeggio.
I wanna show you the routine that
we're gonna play in order to
internalize these six arpeggios.
I'm just gonna play them one octave up and
down in a row without stopping,
and I'm actually gonna
verbalize the quality as I go.
It goes like this.
[MUSIC]
Major seven.
dominant seven.
[MUSIC]
minor seven, Minor seventh
flat five half-diminished.
[MUSIC]
Fully diminished.
[MUSIC]
And augmented.
[MUSIC]
Practicing this in the key of D is
gonna be really easy, but
we wanna learn a transposable fingering.
okay?
So let's just do the same arpeggios in
the key of D, but we're gonna do
it by fingering all the notes.
We're not gonna use any open strings.
And those hand shapes that result we'll
be able to use in any key in any octave.
okay?
So the major seven will be fingered one,
extension four, one, and
then we'll shift to three, four.
[MUSIC]
The dominant seventh will
be one extension four one, and
then we'll shift to two, four.
[MUSIC]
The minor seventh arpeggios
will be one normal four,
one, shifted two, four.
[MUSIC]
Then the minor seventh
flat five half-diminished.
We'll have one,
four extension one back to the A flats.
And then we'll shift to two, four.
[MUSIC]
Slowly diminished, we'll go one,
four extension one back, and
then we'll shift to one, four.
[MUSIC]
And lastly, the augmented one
extension four, then a closed one,
we're gonna bring the first finger up for
the sharp five, and
then extension two, four on top.
[MUSIC]
These hand shapes
will go in any key,
in any octave.
There are two options when
fingering seventh chords.
You can start from the first finger,
as we are now, or
you can start from the fourth finger.
Either of these fingerings will work.
Let me just show you both of these
fingerings one last time in the key D.
I'll put on a drone.
You wanna practice this with a drone,
so that you can really hear
the quality of these chords.
I'm gonna keep verbalizing them,
and I'm just gonna demonstrate
the first finger position one more time,
and then we'll end with
the fourth finger position now that
you have these arpeggios in your ear.
Major seventh.
[MUSIC]
Dominant seventh.
[MUSIC]
Minor seventh.
[MUSIC]
Minor seventh flat five, half-diminished.
[MUSIC]
fully diminished.
[MUSIC]
Augmented.
[MUSIC]
I'm gonna do all of that
starting from fourth finger.
So you see your other hand shape option.
I'll notate out this finger for you.
Major seventh.
[MUSIC]
Dominant seventh.
[MUSIC]
Minor seventh.
[MUSIC]
Minor seventh, flat five,
half-diminished.
[MUSIC]
Fully diminished.
[MUSIC]
And augmented.
[MUSIC]
These are all the permutations
of the seventh chords that we have.
And you wanna get really
used to playing these and
understanding the differences
between them.
Definitely before you
embark on the jazz crew.
[MUSIC]